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Año 2011, Volumen 61
Número 4


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HOME > EDICIONES > Año 2001, Volumen 51 - Número 1

Artículos Generales
Prevalencia de las anemias nutricionales de mujeres en edad fértil. Costa Rica. Encuesta nacional de nutrición, 1996

Sara Rodríguez, Adriana Blanco, Louella Cunningham, Melany Ascencio, Mario Chávez, Leda Muñoz
Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud «Inciensa», Ministerio de Salud, Universidad de Costa Rica.

SUMMARY
Prevalence of nutritional anemia in women of reproductive age. Costa Rica. National Nutrition Survey, 1996

In 1996, The Ministry of Health and Inciensa conducted the latest National Nutrition Survey, to provide support and guidance to the national policies, plans and programs in the field of food and nutrition. The present paper reports the results for the prevalence of anemia estimated in a total of 884 women of reproductive age, in three areas: metropolitan area, other urban areas and rural areas. Anemia was determinated through measurements of hemoglobin, plasma ferritin and plasma folates. In addition, hemoglobin patterns were determinated by electrophoresis. The cutt-off points used were those recommended by the WHO. Anemia was present in 18,6% of the women. Severe to moderate deficiency of iron (<12 ng/dl) and of folates (< 6 ng/dl) were found in 43,2 and 24,7% of women respectively, with statistically significant differences by area of residence. The magnitude of the problem for anemia can be classified as mild, for iron deficiency as severe, and for folate deficiency as moderate. In conclusion, Anemia represents a public health problem for Costa Rica that has remained constant throughout the last decade. In women of reproductive age, iron deficiency is the main cause of Anemia, followed by folates deficiency, and in a small percentage hemoglobinopathies. Intestinal parasites are not longer a mayor cause of Anemia. Prevalence of Anemia is influenced by place of residence, but not by age. In summary, despite the favorable health conditions present in Costa Rica, the prevalence of Anemia and of irondeficiency are similar to those of the Latin-American region. To improve this situation, public health interventions are necessary.

Key words: Anemia, iron, folate, ferritin.






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