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Número 4

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HOME > EDICIONES > Año 2003, Volumen 53 - Número 1

Trabajos de Investigación
Anemias nutricionales en mujeres lactantes de Costa Rica

Blanco A, Rodríguez S, Cunningham L.
Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud (INCIENSA), Tres Ríos, Costa Rica.

Nutritional anaemia in nursing women of Costa Rica

It is reported the prevalence, magnitude and determinant factors of nutritional anaemia in a sample of nursing women (NW), collected during the National Nutrition Survey, of Costa Rica done in 1996. Nutritional anaemia was determinate through measurements of haemoglobin, and plasma ferritin, folates, cianocobalamin and retinol. Methodologies used were cianometahaemoglobin, solid phase inmunoradiometric assay, solid phase radioinmunoassay and high-pressure liquid chromatography. WHO cut-off points were used. Anaemia was present in 22,1% of the women. Iron and folate deficiency were found in 48,7 and 84,2% NW, respectively. The magnitude of anaemia was mild and iron and folate deficiencies were severe. Vitamin B12 and A deficiencies were 5,3 and 4,9%, respectively and did not represent a public health problem in this group. Prevalent deficiency was mixed (iron and folates, 46,6%) followed by exclusive folates deficiency (32%). Anaemia was caused by a combined deficiency of iron and folates (61,1%) and most iron deficiencies were accompanied by folates (92%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low socio-economic level of NW and their families was the principal factor determining the appearance of nutritional anaemia, and educative interventions to the mother are possibly recommended. In conclusion anaemia in NW is a moderate health problem of nutritional type, that is more important when severe folates and iron deficiencies are present in Costa Rica. These problems have remained constant throughout the last three decades; although recently, possibly an improvement has occurred because the prevalence of neural tube defects in the infant population has reduced, maybe due to food iron and folates fortification public health policies implementation.

Key Words: Nursing women, anaemia, nutritional anaemia, iron, folate, ferritin, retinol, cianocobalamin.

Recibido: 13/12/2001
Aceptado: 03/01/2003

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ALAN-VE ISSN 0004-0622 - Depósito Legal: pp 199602DF83
Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición
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