Freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder rich in anthocyanins did
not reduce weight gain and lipid content in mice and rats
SUMMARY. Jaboticaba, a native fruit from Brazilian
Atlantic Forest, is an important source of anthocyanins.
Anthocyanins have been recently identified
as modulators of lipid metabolism and energy expenditure
‘in vivo’. The purpose of this study was to
evaluate the effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peel
powder on obesity treatment in different experimental
models. Obese Swiss mice and obese Sprague-
Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented
with 1, 2 and 4% freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder
for 6 weeks. Energy intake, weight gain and body
composition were determined, and the results were
analyzed using variance and Tukey's tests (p <0.05).
The energy intake was higher in mice groups supplemented
with 2% and 4% of jaboticaba peel. In relation
to weight gain, the mice supplemented with
2% of jaboticaba peel had higher total weight gain
than the other experimental groups, while no significant
difference in the fat mass accumulation was
observed among the groups. The rats did not show
significant differences in the evaluated parameters.
These results suggest that the supplementation with
freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder, at concentrations
of 1, 2 and 4%, was not effective in the reduction
of energy intake, weight gain and body fat both
in mice and in rats.
Key words: Jaboticaba, anthocyanins, obesity, mice,
RESUMEN: La cáscara de jaboticaba liofilizada, una rica
fuente de antocianinas, no influyó en la ganancia de peso ni
en el contenido de lípidos en roedores La jaboticaba, una fruta
nativa de la Selva Atlántica de Brasil, es una fuente importante
de antocianinas. Las antocianinas han sido recientemente identificadas
como moduladoras del metabolismo de lípidos y del
gasto energético en vivo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar
el uso de la cáscara de jaboticaba liofilizada en polvo en el
tratamiento de la obesidad, en distintos modelos experimentales.
Ratones Swiss y ratas Sprague-Dawley obesos, recibieron dietas
con alto contenido de grasas, a las que se añadió 1, 2 y 4% de
cáscara de jaboticaba en polvo, durante 6 semanas. Se determinó
el consumo de energía, el aumento de peso y la composición corporal
de los animales, y los resultados fueron sometidos a análisis
de varianza y prueba de Tukey, con p <0,05. El consumo
de energía fue superior en los grupos de ratones Swiss de los
grupos con 2% y 4% de cáscara de jaboticaba. En el aumento
del peso, los ratones Swiss del grupo con 2% de piel de jaboticaba
aumentaron más en peso total comparados a los otros grupos
experimentales; mientras que no se observaron diferencias
significativas entre los grupos respecto a la composición de la
masa grasa. Entre los grupos de ratas Sprague-Dawley no se dieron
diferencias significativas en ninguno de los parámetros evaluados.
Por lo tanto, se concluye que la adición de 1, 2 y 4% de
cáscara de jaboticaba liofilizada, a la dieta, no fue eficaz para el
tratamiento de la obesidad, tanto en ratones Swiss como en ratas
Palabras clave: Jaboticaba, antocianinas, obesidad, ratones.
The increasing prevalence of obese individuals on
all continents has had obesity considered as a global
epidemic (1). Obesity is characterized by excessive
body fat accumulation, which can result in breathing
and motor difficulties, dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus,
cardiovascular diseases and some kinds of cancer (2).
In this context, some investigations have shown that
functional foods can be active against some obesity effects.
Several studies have indicated that bioactive
components in food could play a role on the control of
energy balance and promotion of weight loss (1). Anthocyanins,
phenolic compounds belonging to the flavonoid
family, responsible for the red, blue, violet and
pink colors from fruits, vegetables and flowers, are
among potential allies in the fight against obesity (3).
Anthocyanins are known for their antioxidant properties,
inhibitory action of several tumors, and possible
protective effects in cardiovascular diseases (4). Recently,
anthocyanins have been identified as modulators
of lipid metabolism and energy expenditure,
Anne Y. Castro Marques, Nathalia Romanelli Dragano, Sabrina Alves Lenquiste, Ângela Giovana Batista,
Carina Carlucci Palazzo, Mário Roberto Maróstica Jr.
Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Engineering,
University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil
ARCHIVOS LATINOAMERICANOS DE NUTRICIÓN
Órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición
Vol. 62 Nº 1, 2012
38 CASTRO MARQUES et al.
reducing fat mass in rats and acting positively in the
lipid profile (5).
The consumption of fruits like blueberry, raspberry,
strawberry and blackcurrant, rich in anthocyanins, has
been associated with reduced body weight and appetite
in animal studies. Kim et al. (1) proved that anthocyanins,
independently from the fiber content of the fruits
can be active against obesity; they found that the consumption
of blueberry soluble extract reduced some
obesity parameters in animal models. Jaboticaba
(Myrciaria jaboticaba), a native fruit from the Brazilian
Atlantic Forest, has a peel with high concentrations
of anthocyanins. This Brazilian fruit is used in
jams, liqueurs and vinegars, but its use in food industry
in not fully exploited (6). Several authors state
that jaboticaba could be considered a Brazilian berry,
given that its anthocyanins composition is similar to
other berries, more specifically, the blackberry, in
which delphinidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-
glucoside were identified (7).
Although anthocyanins rich fruits and/or purified
anthocyanins are associated with reduced obesity, studies
that correlate jaboticaba consumption and weight
control are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate
the possible role of jaboticaba anthocyanins
on the treatment of obesity. In this way, energy intake,
weight gain and body composition of mice and rats fed
high-fat diet supplemented with freeze-dried jaboticaba
peel powder in different concentrations were tested.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Preparation of freeze-dried jaboticaba peels.
The jaboticaba fruits (Myrciaria jaboticaba Vell berg)
were obtained directly from producer (Aguaí, São
Paulo State, Brazil), during the main harvest season in
September 2008. The fruits were manually washed
with fresh water and the peels were separated and frozen
at -20 °C. The frozen peels were lyophilized and
grounded into a fine powder by an electrical Mill. The
freeze-dried powder was kept in airtight containers
and stored at -80 °C.
Determination of anthocyanins and chemical
composition in freeze-dried jaboticaba peel. The anthocyanins
extraction of freeze-dried jaboticaba peel
was performed according to Wu (8), with subsequent
determination in liquid chromatography equipped with
a diode array detector and a C18 column. Total and individual
anthocyanins identification and quantification
were performed according to Favaro (9), with slight
modifications. The identification of compounds was
performed by retention time analysis, in comparison
with anthocyanins standards. The concentrations were
determined according to a calibration curve constructed
from anthocyanins standards.
Analyses of moisture, total protein and ash were
performed according to methods described by the Association
of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)
(10). Total lipids were determined by Bligh; Dyer (11),
and the determination of soluble and insoluble fiber
was carried out according to ASP et al. (12). The carbohydrate
concentration in the freeze-dried jaboticaba
peel was obtained by difference.
Experimental diets. Five different diets were prepared:
standard AIN-93G diet (13), with protein concentration
of 12% (14) (C diet); modified AIN-93G
high-fat diet, with 12% of protein and 35% (wt/wt) of
lipids (HF diet); and three high-fat diet supplemented
with freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder, in concentrations
of 1, 2 and 4% (wt/wt) (HFJ1, HFJ2 and HFJ4
diets). The concentrations of freeze-dried powder in the
diets were determined according to a preliminary study
conducted by our research group (15). The high-fat
diets were prepared with less amount of carbohydrates
(starch, maltodextrin and sucrose), due to the lard addition.
In diets supplemented with freeze-dried jaboticaba
peel powder, the added cellulose was reduced, as
the fruit peel is a good source of dietary fiber.
The chemical composition of experimental diets
was determined by moisture, ash, protein (10) and
total lipids analysis (11). Carbohydrates concentration
was obtained by difference, and energy content was
determined using isoperibol automatic calorimeter
(PARR 1261) with oxygen pump (PARR 1108). The
formulation and the chemical composition of diets are
presented in Tables 1 and 2.
Despite the different formulation of high-fat diets
(HF, HFJ1, HFJ2 and HFJ4), these were similar in fat
content and differed only from the AIN93-G control
diet, which did not receive lard. Significant differences
also occurred among the moisture and ash values in
HFJ1, HFJ2 and HFJ4 diets. These differences are
consequence of jaboticaba peel powder supplementation,
which has important minerals and moisture concentration.
Moreover, it was observed that the
carbohydrates concentration differs among the expeFREEZE-
DRIED JABOTICABA PEEL POWDER RICH IN ANTHOCYANINS 39
rimental groups; this fact is explained by partial replacement
of carbohydrates by lard in high-fat diets.
In relation to energy density (Table 2), there was
significant difference between the control diet and
high-fat diets, but the high-fat diets with and without
freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder supplementation
Animals. The animals used in this study were from
University of Campinas Breeding Center. The investigation
was approved by Ethics Committee for Animal
(Permission 2020-1/2010 and 2226-1/2010) and
followed the University guidelines for the use of animals
in experimental studies. The animals were maintained
at 22±1°C, on a 12 hours artificial light/dark
cycle, and housed in individual cages.
Swiss male mice were used in Experiment 1, and
Sprague-Dawley males in the Experiment 2. In both
tests the newly weaned animals were randomly divided
into five groups (n = 8), with 7 days of acclimatization
and 10 weeks of experiment. C and HF groups received
Composition of experimental diets.
Ingredients (g/kg of diet)*
C HF HFJ1 HFJ2 HFJ4
Casein 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8
Soybean oil 70.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0
Lard - 310.0 310.0 310.0 310.0
Corn starch 426.6 249.8 249.8 249.8 249.8
Maltodextrin 141.7 82.9 82.9 82.9 82.9
Sucrose 107.3 62.9 62.9 62.9 62.9
Cellulose 50.0 50.0 47.5 45.0 40.0
Mineral mixture 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0
Vitamin mixture 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
L-cystine 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Choline bitartrate 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Terc-Butilhidroquinone 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014
Jaboticaba peel powder - - 10.0 20.0 40.0
Total 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0
Anthocianins (mg/kg of diet)
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside - - 196.4 392.8 785.6
Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside - - 63.5 127.0 254.0
Total - - 259.9 519.8 1039.6
*Ingredients expressed in g/kg of diet. C: control diet, HF: high-fat diet HFJ1: high-fat diet supplemented with 1% of jaboticaba peel
powder HFJ2: high-fat diet supplemented with 2% of jaboticaba peel powder HFJ4: high-fat diet supplemented with 4% of jaboticaba
Chemical composition of experimental diets.
C HF HFJ1 HFJ2 HFJ4
Moisture 10.55 ± 0.50b 9.57 ± 0.30b 16.66 ± 1.11a 17.70 ± 0.21a 16.91 ± 1.05a
Protein 12.56 ± 0.22a 12.62 ± 0.14a 12.43 ± 0.15a 13.14 ± 0.71a 12.83 ± 0.26a
Lipids 6.87 ± 0.17b 32.80 ± 0.93a 33.64 ± 0.08a 32.60 ± 0.60a 33.03 ± 0.16a
Ash 2.31 ± 0.09b 2.43 ± 0.06b 3.12 ± 0.01a 3.27 ± 0.04a 3.23 ± 0.09a
Carbohydrates 67.71 42.58 34.15 33.29 34.00
Energy density # 4.25 ± 13.92b 5.83 ± 33.82a 5.81 ± 22.85a 5.77 ± 23.61a 5.78 ± 12.19a
C: control diet, HF: high-fat diet HFJ1: high-fat diet supplemented with 1% of jaboticaba peel powder HFJ2: high-fat diet supplemented
with 2% of jaboticaba peel powder HFJ4: high-fat diet supplemented with 4% of jaboticaba peel powder. Results are expressed
as average ± standard deviation. #Value in kcal/g of diet, obtained by calorimetry. The high-fat diets have similar proteins, lipids
and energy concentration. Values with different letters on the same row show statistical difference (p <0.05).
40 CASTRO MARQUES et al.
respective diets throughout the experimental period,
while HFJ1, HFJ2 and HFJ4 groups received high-fat
diet during four weeks and high-fat diet supplemented
with jaboticaba peel powder during the last 6 weeks.
Biological analysis. The diet intake and the
body weight gain were checked every two days
and once a week, respectively. Food was changed
twice a week, or whenever necessary, to minimize
lipid oxidation and anthocyanins deterioration.
The body composition was determined according
to Park et al. (16), by removing the intestinal
contents to obtain the empty carcass. Later, the carcass
was frozen, sliced, freeze-dried, crushed and
stored at -80ºC until the determinations of moisture,
total ash, protein (10) and total fat (11).
Statistical analysis. Data analysis was performed
using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.1.3 program.
On-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and
Tukey’s test (p< 0.05) were used in order to compare
the average of the results.
Determination of anthocyanins and chemical
composition in freeze-dried jaboticaba peel. The
delphinidin-3-glucoside and the cyanidin-3-glucoside
anthocyanins were identified in freeze-dried jaboticaba
peel by chromatographic analysis. Cyanidin-3-
glucoside was found to be the predominant
anthocyanin in the product, representing 75.6% of
total anthocyanins. The chemical composition of freeze-
dried jaboticaba peel powder used as supplement
in experimental diets is presented in Table 3.
Energy intake and weight gain. Daily average
energy intake (kcal/animal/day) for mice (a) and rats (b)
during 10 weeks of experiments are shown in Figure 1.
Chemical composition and energy content
of freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder.
Composition* Average ± SD*
Moisture 15.33 ± 0.19 %
Protein** 4.89 ± 0.10 %
Lipids 1.72 ± 0.02 %
Ash 3.52 ± 0.02 %
Insoluble fiber 20.00 ± 2.00 %
Soluble fiber 5.00 ± 0.50 %
Carbohydrates 49.46 %
Energy content 2.32 kcal/g
*Analysis of the composition of the jaboticaba peel: moisture,
protein, lipid and ash were performed in triplicate and the results
are expressed as average ± standard deviation. ** N x 6.25.
Daily average energy intake (kcal/animal/day) for mice (a)
and rats (b) during 10 weeks of experiments. C: control
diet, HF: high-fat diet; HFJ1: high-fat diet supplemented
with 1% of jaboticaba peel powder; HFJ2: high-fat diet
supplemented with 2% of jaboticaba peel powder; HFJ4:
high-fat diet supplemented with 4% of jaboticaba peel powder.
The bars represent average ± SE. Different letters
means that the values are statistically different (p > 0.05).
Mice fed with 2% and 4% of jaboticaba peel on the diet
showed higher daily energy intake than HF group. Rats fed
with 4% of jaboticaba peel also showed higher daily energy
intake than HF group, but without statistical difference.
Some changes in feeding patterns were observed
in the experiment with mice (Figure 1a). The daily
energy intake was statistically higher in groups fed
with high-fat diets compared to lean control group. In
addition, animals fed with 2% and 4% of jaboticaba
peel on the diet showed higher daily energy intake
than HF group. In contrast, this pattern was not repeated
in the experiment with the rats: the groups fed
with high-fat diets, with and without freeze-dried jaboticaba
peel powder, did not show different energy
intakes (Figure 1b).
The cumulative weight gain values in both animal
models, throughout the 10 experimental weeks are
displayed in Figure 2.
As expected, in both experiments, the animals that
ate the high-fat diets showed greater cumulative
weight gain compared to the groups that received control
diets. Supplementing the high-fat diets with 1%,
2% and 4% of jaboticaba peel powder did not protect
obese mice and rats of additional weight gain. Instead,
in the experiment with Swiss mice (Figure 2a), the
HFJ2 group showed significantly greater total weight
FREEZE-DRIED JABOTICABA PEEL POWDER RICH IN ANTHOCYANINS 41
Groups HF and HF2 showed statistically lower
content of proteins in carcasses compared to group
C (control). Furthermore, there was no change in
lean mass content among the HF group and the
groups supplemented with freeze-dried jaboticaba
peel powder (HFJ1, HFJ2 and HFJ4).
Groups HF, HFJ1, HFJ2 and HFJ4 showed statistically
higher contents of lipids in the carcass
compared to control. On one hand, these data proved
that the higher weight gain observed in all high-fat
groups was proportional to the largest fat mass accumulation.
On the other hand, despite the rats from HFJ2
showed greater weight gain they did not accumulated
more fat mass compared to the other high-fat groups.
Significant differences on moisture contents were
observed among mice groups, with values varying between
0.7% and 1.6%. The carcasses were freeze-dried
before analysis, which explains the very low moisture
Finally, the ash content was largely different among
the group C and the other (HF, HFJ1, HFJ2 and HFJ4).
Despite the higher mineral concentration in diets supplemented
with jaboticaba peel, there was a significant
reduction in the ash concentration in carcasses of the
animals from all high-fat groups.
The amounts of protein, fat, moisture and ash, corresponding
to body composition of Sprague-Dawley
rats at the end of the experiment are also presented in
Table 4. Protein and fat contents were
not statistically different among the
groups, regardless the clear differences
on the diet offered to each group.
Nevertheless, the animals that received
high-fat diets (with and without
jaboticaba peel powder) presented
lower ash contents.
The chromatographic profile of
the sample is in accordance to Terci
(17); however, this Brazilian study
also identified the presence of peonidin-
3-glucoside in the jaboticaba
peel. Reynertson et al. (18) identified
the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside
and peonidin-3-glucoside in jaboticaba.
Unfortunately, authors mentio-
Total weight gain of mice (a) and rats (b) after 10 weeks of
experiments. C: control diet, HF: high-fat diet; HFJ1:
high-fat diet supplemented with 1% of jaboticaba peel
powder; HFJ2: high-fat diet supplemented with 2% of
jaboticaba peel powder; HFJ4: high-fat diet supplemented
with 4% of jaboticaba peel powder. The bars represent
average ± SE. Different letters represent statistical
difference (p > 0.05). The high-fat diets supplemented with
jaboticaba peel powder did not reduce total weight gain in
different animal models.
Body composition of mice and rats fed with differentdiets
after 10 experimental weeks*.
(%) C HF HFJ1 HFJ2 HFJ4
Protein** 35.4 ± 5.0a 28.0 ± 2.5b 29.7 ± 3.3ab 27.4 ± 2.2b 29.4 ± 4.5ab
Lipids 47.7 ± 5.6b 61.5 ± 2.9ª 63.6 ± 3.4a 62.3 ± 1.7ª 57.5 ± 4.0a
Moisture 1.6 ± 0.6a 0.7 ± 0.2c 1.0 ± 0.2ac 1.4 ± 0.3b 1.4 ± 0.4ab
Ash 8.2 ± 0.9a 4.7 ± 0.2b 5.1 ± 0.8b 5.2 ± 0.9b 4.8 ± 0.7b
Protein** 60.4 ± 4.0a 58.9 ± 3.3a 60.0 ± 3.6a 57.5 ± 2.3a 60.2 ± 3.6a
Lipids 25.4 ± 4.5a 28.7 ± 4.0a 26.9 ± 5.4a 29.2 ± 2.7a 28.0 ± 3.1a
Moisture 5.4 ± 1.3a 4.6 ± 0.4a 5.3 ± 1.0a 4.9 ± 0.3a 4.6 ± 0.3a
Ash 12.8 ± 1.3a 10.8 ± 1.2b 11.0 ± 0.5b 11.2 ± 1.7b 10.7 ± 0.5b
*Dry weight value, after carcass freeze-drying. **Conversion factor used to protein: N = 6.25.
C: control diet, HF: high-fat diet HFJ1: high-fat diet supplemented with 1% of jaboticaba peel
powder HFJ2: high-fat diet supplemented with 2% of jaboticaba peel powder HFJ4: high-fat diet
supplemented with 4% of jaboticaba peel powder. Results are expressed as average ± SD. Values
with different letters on the same row show statistical difference (p <0.05). The high-fat diets
supplemented with jabotica
||ba did not significantly alter body composition of mice and rats.
gain than other groups fed with diets rich in saturated
fatty acids. Similar results were obtained in the experiment
with Sprague-Dawley rats (Figure 2b) for the
HFJ4 group, without statistical significant difference,
however. Thus, the higher energy intake was found to
be closely associated with the highest cumulative
weight gain in these treatments.
Body composition. The body compositions of
mice fed with different diets after 10 experimental
weeks are shown in Table 4.
42 CASTRO MARQUES et al.
ned above did not describe the variety of jaboticaba
used in their studies, which may be decisive for the
composition of anthocyanins.
The jaboticaba peel is composed mainly of carbohydrates
(including soluble and insoluble fiber) and
water. Probably, the high content of carbohydrate
found reflects the large amount of simple and structural
sugars, which in general are the major constituents
of fruit peels (19).
Several studies have evaluated the effects of anthocyanins
rich fruits and/or anthocyanins purified on
the development of obesity. The results presented in
most of these studies are not consistent with the data
found in this work, both in terms of energy intake and
weight gain. Tsuda et al (20) showed that mice submitted
to high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 2%
cyanidin-3-glucoside from purple corn, although presented
no difference in energy intake, and had lower
weight gain compared to the HFD.
Recently, Prior et al. (21) supplemented high-fat
diet offered to mice with freeze-dried blueberries, freeze-
dried strawberries or purified cyanidin-3-
glucoside. Animals fed with purified
cyanidin-3-glucoside showed a reduction in weight
gain, while those fed freeze-dried fruits at a concentration
of 10% had higher weight gain. In a similar
study, DeFuria et al. (22) fed mice with high-fat diet
plus 4% freeze-dried blueberry, and the animals did
not show changes in energy intake and weight gain
compared to the control group.
The freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder addition
clearly changed sensory characteristics (color and flavor)
of the diets. The animal preference for diets added
with jaboticaba peel powder was evident: the animals
were previously fed with HF diet for 4 weeks, and
after the diet was changed by the jaboticaba peel supplemented
diets (data not shown). The animals of all
the groups that received diets added with jaboticaba
powder HFJ1, HFJ2 and HFJ4 showed higher intakes
of feed. The improved palatability of jaboticaba diets
may have increased energy intake and, consequently,
it caused the higher weight gain in these groups.
Although the animals’ bone masses have not been
assessed, the lower ash content in high-fat groups may
indicate a reduction on bone mineralization. Both adipocytes
and osteblasts originate from mesenchymal
stem cells; with increased formation of adipocytes
caused by supplementation with lard, cell differentiation
in osteoblast may have been lower and, consequently,
bone formation was reduced (23).
Based on the body composition results shown, it
can be concluded that supplementation of diet with
freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder did not modulate
lipid metabolism and did not reduce fat mass in the
different experimental models. Prior et al. (24) analyzed,
by magnetic resonance imaging, the body composition
of mice fed with high-fat diet and low-fat diet
(LF), both supplemented with blueberries (juice and
freeze-dried fruit) and purified anthocyanins. The authors
found that animals fed with high-fat diet had higher
fat mass (%) and lower lean mass (%) compared
to those given low-fat diet. These results are consistent
with the ones reported in our study, indicating that supplementation
with berries rich in anthocyanins and
even with purified anthocyanins did not change body
composition. However, it is noteworthy that the time
of the experiment may have negatively influenced
body composition. Perhaps longer treatments with freeze-
dried jaboticaba peel powder should result in significant
changes in body composition.
It is suggested that the purified anthocyanins have
positive effects on reducing obesity and metabolic
changes resulting from this disease, as previous studies
have showed lower effectiveness of the fruits source
of anthocyanins compared to the use of the purified
compound. In an attempt to explain the lower efficiency
of fruit in reducing obesity, it is suspected that
there may be some compound in the fresh fruit that
slows the anthocyanins absorption, reducing its bioavailability
and, consequently, the effectiveness of its
Freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder in different
concentrations was not effective in the prevention of
body weight gain and lipid contents on the carcasses
of mice and rats as experimental models. Divergences
found respect to other studies can be attributed to the
concentration of jaboticaba peel added to the diets and
the use of jaboticaba peel as an anthocyanin source
instead of purified anthocyanins. Thus, further experiments
are needed in order to obtain more evidences
about the role of anthocyanins on obesity treatment.
This work was supported by Fundação de Amparo
FREEZE-DRIED JABOTICABA PEEL POWDER RICH IN ANTHOCYANINS 43
à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e
1. Kim KH, Park Y. Food components with ant-obesity effect.
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology.
2011; 2: 237-57.
2. Pinheiro ARO, Freitas SFT, Corso ACT. Uma abordagem
epidemiológica da obesidade. Revista de Nutrição.
2004; 17: 523-33.
3. Brito ES, Araújo MCP, Alves RE, Carkeet C, Clevidence
BA, Novotny JA. Anthocyanins present in selected
tropical fruits: acerola, jambolão, jussara, and
guajiru. J Agric Food Chem. 2007; 55: 9389–94.
4. Hollman PCH, Katan MB. Dietary flavonoids: intake,
health effects and bioavailability. Food Chem Toxicol.
1999; 37: 937-42.
5. Kwon S, Ahn I, Kim S, Kong C, Chung H, Do M et al.
PARK. Anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of black
soybean anthocyanins. Journal of Medicinal Food.
2007; 10: 552-56.
6. Silva GJF, Constant PBL, Figueiredo RW, Moura SM.
Formulação e estabilidade de corantes de antocianinas
extraídas das cascas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria ssp), Alim
Nutr. 2010; 21: 429-36.
7. Dugo P, Mondello L, Errante G, Zappia G, Dugo G.
Identification of anthocyanins in berries by narrow-bore
high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray
ionization detection. J Agric Food Chem. 2001; 49:
8. Wu X, Gu L, Prior RL, Mckay S. Characterization of
anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars
of ribes, aronia, and sambucus and their antioxidant capacity.
J Agric Food Chem. 2004; 52: 7846-56.
9. Favaro MMA. Extração, estabilidade e quantificação de
antocianinas de frutas típicas brasileiras para aplicação
industrial como corantes [dissertation]. Instituto de Química:
Universidade Estadual de Campinas; 2008.
10. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official
methods of analysis of AOAC. 16. ed. Virginia: AOAC
11. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction
and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry
and Physiology. 1959; 37: 911-17.
12. Asp NG, Johansson CG, Hallmer H, Siljestrom M. Rapid
enzimatic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber /
Rapidos ensayos enzimaticos de fibra dietetica soluble
e insoluble. J Agric Food Chem. 1983; 31: 476-82.
13. Reeves PG, Nielsen FH, Fahey Jr GC. AIN-93 Purified
diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American
Institute of Nutrition Ad Hoc Writing Committee on the
Reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr.
1993; 123: 1939-51.
14. Goena M, Marzo F, Fernández-González L, Tosar A,
Frühbeck G, Santidrián S. Effect of the raw legume
Vicia ervilha on muscle and liver protein metabolism in
growing rats. Rev Esp Fisiol. 1989; 45: 55-60.
15. Leite AV, Malta LG, Riccio MF, Eberlin MN, Pastore
GM, Maróstica Júnior MR. Antioxidant potential of rat
plasma by administration of freeze-dried jaboticaba peel
(Myrciaria jaboticaba Vell Berg). J Agric Food Chem.
2011; 59: 2277-83.
16. Park Y, Albright KJ, Liu W, Storkson JM, Cook ME, Pariza
MW. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body
composition in mice. Lipids. 1997; 32: 853-58.
17. Terci DBL. Aplicações analíticas e didáticas de antocianinas
extraídas de frutas [thesis]. Instituto de Química:
Universidade Estadual de Campinas; 2004.
18. Reynertson KA. Phytochemical analysis of bioactive
constituents from edible myrtaceae fruits [thesis]. Faculty
in Biology: City University of New York; 2007.
19. Damodaran S, Parkin KL, Fennema OR. Química de alimentos
de Fennema. 4.ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed; 2010.
20. Tsuda T, Horio F, Uchida K, AokI H, Osawa T. Dietary
cyanidin 3-O-b-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color prevents
obesity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in mice. J
Nutr. 2003; 133: 2125–30.
21. Prior RL, Wu X, Gu L, Hager TJ, Hager A, Howard LR.
Whole berries versus berry anthocyanins: interactions
with dietary fat levels in the C57BL/6J mouse model of
obesity. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56: 647–53.
22. DeFuria J, Bennett G, Strissel KJ, Perfield JW, Milbury
PE, Greenberg AS et al. Dietary blueberry attenuates
whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by
reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae.
J Nutr. 2009; 139: 1510-16.
23. Xiao Y, Cui J, Li YX, Shi YH, Le GW. Expression of
genes associated with bone resorption is increased and
bone formation is decreased in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Lipids. 2010; 45: 345-55.
24. Prior RL, Wilkes S, Rogers T, Khanal RC, Wu X,
Hager TJ et al. Dietary black raspberry anthocyanins do
not alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic
high-fat diet. J Agric Food Chem. 2010; 58:
25. Prior RL, Wilkes SE, Rogers TR, Khanal RC, Wu X, Howard
LR. Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry
juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an
obesogenic high-fat diet. J Agric Food Chem, 2010; 58: