1 Department of Nutrition, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2 Research Group; Department of Health and Human Performance. Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences (INEF). Technical University of Madrid, Spain; 3 Ciberobn, Madrid, Spain; 4 Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress (NUCOX). University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
Introduction: The effect of body composition on vitamin D concentration is one of the proposed mechanisms for the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and blood lipid profile levels. However, studies examining this relationship are limited and have provided inconsistent results. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between body composition and blood lipid profile levels on serum 25-hydrovitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in Spanish elderly. Methods: A subsample of 383 participants (58.2% females) aged 55-88 years had fasting blood samples analyzed to determine serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC). Body composition parameters (fat mass, fat free mass) were obtained by bioimpedance (TANITA Corp, BC- 418MA). The one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed controlling for age, fat free mass and TC. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <20ng/mL) was 30.5% and insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D <30ng/mL) was 37.3 %. Controlling by age there was a positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and HDL (r=0.14; p=0.04), but only in women (r=0.20, p=0.003). There was a negative correlation between fat mass and HDL in women (r=-0.26, p<0.001) and in men (r=-0.39, p<0.001). There was a difference in fat mass, fat free mass, HDL, TG and TC between gender (all p≤0.05). The ANCOVA analysis revealed that fat mass (p=0.041) and HDL (p<0.001) were independently associated with 25(OH)D concentrations. Those elderly in the lower fat mass tertile had higher concentrations of 25(OH)D (p=0.045) and lower TG levels (p=0.026). Conclusion: Vitamin D concentration was positively correlated with HDL levels. Fat mass was related with high vitamin D concentrations independently of age and fat free mass and total cholesterol levels.