1 Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV/MG) e Faculdades INTA, Brazil; 2 Empresa Brazileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Brazil; 3 Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV/MG), Brazil.
Background: Type 2 diabetes has been associated with dysbiosis and one of the possible routes for restore a healthy gut microbiota is by the regular ingestion of probiotics. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of probiotics on glycemic control, lipid profile, inflammation, oxidative stress and short chain fatty acids in T2D. Design: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 50 volunteers consumed daily 120 g/d of fermented milk for 6 wk. Participants were assigned into two groups: probiotic, consumed fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 (109 colony-forming units/d, each) or control, consumed conventional fermented milk. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, fasting blood and faecal samples were taken at baseline and after 6 wk. Results: 45 subjects out of 50 (90%) completed follow-up. After 6 wk, there was a significant decrease in fructosamine levels (- 9.91mmol/L; P = 0.04) and hemoglobin A1c tended to be lower (- 0.67%; P = 0.06) in probiotic group. TNF-alpha; and resistin were significantly reduced in probiotic and control groups (-1.5 and -1.3 pg/mL, -2.1 and -2.8 ng/mL, respectively) and acetic acid was increased in both groups (0.58 and 0.59% in probiotic and control groups, respectively; P < 0.01), while IL-10 was significantly reduced (-0.65 pg/mL; P < 0.001) only in the control grouP. There was a significant difference between groups concerning mean changes of HbA1c (P=0.02), total cholesterol (-0.58mmol/L; 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.03; P = 0.04) and LDL-cholesterol (- 0.52 mmol/L; 95% CI: -1.02 to -0.03; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Probiotic consumption improved the glycemic control in T2D subjects, however, the intake of fermented milk seems to be involved with others metabolic changes.