Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 2 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil
Consumption of ultra-processed food have risen in Brazil, but its contribution in total dietary energy remains unknown in traditional communities. The objective is to determine the prevalence of ultra-processed food in four quilombolas communities, with high prevalence of obesity. We conducted a non-randomized cluster trial in four quilombolas communities in Southern Brazil (Passo do Lourenço, Algodão, Serrinha do Cristal and Nova Palma). The present study refers to the phase I of the trial, that comprises baseline data, including demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and anthropometric measures of all family chief members. Foods and nutrients were evaluated using 24h food record. We classified food intake in unprocessed/minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed products and ultra-processed foods. We defined overweight as = 25 kg/m² body mass index, and obesity = 30 kg/m². Categorical variables were described in frequencies, and continuous variables in average and standard deviation or median and interquartile range. Higher tertile of ultra-processed food was considered risk category. We evaluated 176 adults, family chiefs, living in quilombolas communities, with a mean age of 43.9 (±15.9) years, 4.4 (± 4.8) years of schooling, with female prevalence of 69.7% (n=124) and self-identified skin color/race as black in 62.4% (n=111). Prevalence of obesity was 36.2% (n=59), and overweight 66.9% (n=109). Mean contribution of ultra-processed products in total dietary energy intake was 10.9%. Unprocessed had the highest contribution to total dietary energy (52.5%). Culinary ingredients and processed food contributed with 17.3% and 17.5%, respectively. Comparing highest tertile of ultra-processed food with lower tertiles, we found higher amounts (in grams) of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium, whereas lower of fiber, potassium, omega 3, and 6 fatty acids. Consumption of ultra-processed food is lower in quilombolas communities, comparing to general Brazilian population. It is important to encourage traditional recipes, preserving culture and avoiding ultra-processed food consumption.