1 Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Background: The literature reports that programming of chronic diseases by nutritional changes in the mother can overtake the first generation and achieve subsequent generations Aim: The effects of maternal obesity upon liver structure in early adult life, focusing on the F1, F2 generations. Methods: C57BL/6 female mice (F0) were fed standard chow (SC) or HF diet (8 weeks) prior to mating and during the gestation and lactation to provide the F1 generation (F1-SC and F1-HF). At 3 months of age, F1 females were mated to produce the F2 generation (F2-SC and F2-HF). The liver was dissected weighed and sliced into several fragments at 5 μm thickness and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. One-way ANOVA and the post-hoc Holm-Sidak test and t-test were used (P<0.05). Results: The HF-F1 group had higher body mass (BM) at birth (0 day), at 21 days and 90 days, compared with SC-F1 group. OGTT performed at 90 days showed that the HF-F1 group has become significantly more glucose intolerant compared with SC-F1 group (P=0.006). The total cholesterol and the plasma triglyceride were higher in HF-F1 in the SC-F1 (P<0.05). Hepatic steatosis was significantly higher in the HF-F1 group than in SC-F1 group (P<0.05). Regarding the F2, BM of the HF-F2 group was significantly higher at birth (0 day) and at 21 days, but at 90 days there was no difference in BM when compared to SC-F2 group. In the same way, the OGTT of the F2 did not showed difference at 90 days. However, the HF-F2 group presented more hepatic steatosis than the SC-F2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: our results demonstrated that maternal programming yielded in the first generation initially to changes in carbohydrate metabolism, increased BM, in spite of the second generation showed no differences in BM, and metabolism of carbohydrates, the HF-F2 presented hepatic steatosis.