1 Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva da Universidade Federal Fluminense. Niteór, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 2 Dept. de Epidemiologia da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública da FIOCRUZ. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 3 Departamento de Epidemiologia e Bioestatística da Universidade Federal Fluminense. Niteór, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Introduction: The maintenance of bone mineral density (BMD) is an essential aspect to bone health and preventing osteoporosis, therefore, studies on nutrient intake and its relationship with BMD are needed to guide preventive measures. Objective: To evaluate differences by gender in the association of nutrient intake and bone mineral density in adults and elderly over 45 years old. Methods: Observational cross-sectional study of the population assisted by Family Medical Program (FMP) in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample enrolled 632 individuals. Of these, 414 (63% women) completed evaluations of body and nutritional composition and is analyzed in this study. The total body BMD (g/cm2) was measured by DXA exam. The usual dietary intake was assessed by semiquantitative FFQ. Two hierarchal models according to gender have been proposed and verified the association considering demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and body composition variables divided in different blocks. Variables related to nutrient intake were the most proximal one. Multivariate stepwise linear regression was performed. Results: For men, among the tested variables, physical activity, lean body mass index and higher intake of vitamins B6 and folic acid were positively associated with BMD, whereas smoking and older age were negatively associated with the outcome. For women positively associated factors were waist circumference and lean body mass index, as old age and menopause were negatively associated. Considering race black individuals showed higher BMD values when compared to white ones. Conclusion: It seems that for women, hormonal changes caused by menopause represented the main aspects of changes in BMD. Among men intake of higher amounts of vitamin B6 and folic acid were related to higher BMD values.