1 GENUD Research Group. Universidad De Zaragoza, Spain; 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Auckland, New Zealand; 3 CHRU Lille, Faculté médecine, Université de Lille; 4 Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France; 5 CRA-NUT, Agricultural Research Council—Food and Nutrition Research Centre, Rome, Italy; 6 Department of Nutrition and Dieteticsm, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece; 7 Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece; 8 Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Introduction: In adults, there is some evidence that healthy dietary patterns might reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, however studies that analyse this association in adolescents are still scarce. Objectives: To examine the associations between heart rate, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) among European adolescents with their usual intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, meat, fish and savoury snacks. Method: 2330 adolescents (12.5–17.5 years old; 1253 girls) were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed using two computerized 24-hour dietary recalls. SBP, DBP and heart rate were measured and MAP calculated with the same type of device in all centres. Age, sex, body mass index, education level of the mother, physical activity and Tanner stage were considered as confounders. Associations were examined by multilevel linear regression. Tests for trend were assessed by tertiles of intake while controlling for the above mentioned confounders. Results: After adjustments, dairy products intake was negatively associated with heart rate (-0.099; CI -0.009, -0.004), SBP (-0.049; CI -0.006, -0.001), DBP (-0.092; CI -0.006, -0.002) and MAP (-0.082; CI -0.006, -0.002), and fish intake with heart rate (-0.081; CI -0.074, -0.023), SBP (-3.501; CI -0.065, -0.018) and MAP (-0.058; CI -0,041, -0.007). Meat intake was negatively associated with heart rate (-0.049; CI -0.003, 0.074). Significant decreasing trends were observed for heart rate, SBP, DBP and MAP across tertiles of dairy products, for SBP, MAP and heart rate across tertiles of fish intake and for heart rate across tertiles of meat and fruit intake (p<0.05). Significant increasing trends were observed for SBP and MAP across tertiles of snack intake (p<0.05). Conclusions: Heart rate and blood pressure seem to be independent of vegetable intake. Fish and dairy products seem to decrease BP and heart rate while snack intake could increase BP.