1 Facultad de Medicina Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, México
Introduction: Dietary scores are based on the analysis of the relationship between the consumption of certain foods or nutrients with disease or health and are used to assess diet quality in populations. Epidemiological transition in Mexico is characterized by a high prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and adherence to dietary recommendations is inappropriate. Low diet quality is a risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Objectives: To assess diet-quality in healthy adults and its association with cardio-metabolic risk factors. Method/Design: evaluation of food consumption and specific dietetic nutritional components using a diet-score. Data were derived from a food-frequency-questionnaire and multiple 24-hoursrecall. Biochemical and anthropometric data were obtained using standardized procedures. Diet-score was calculated considering 10 food-groups in accordance with their nutrient contribution. ‘Cardioprotective’ foods were coded as ‘positive’ for health. Diet quality was assessed sccording to the diet-score on each participant. Association between cardio-metabolic risk factors and diet quality was assessed using linear regression models and Odds Ratio. Results: We evaluated diet-quality and cardio-metabolic risk factors in 102 healthy young adults. Food and nutrient consumption averages were calculated by sex, physical activity and abdominal circumference. Adherence to nutritional recommendations for healthy Mexicans was estimated. Diet-score was calculated considering consumption of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, sodium and fiber in the diet by terciles. Dietary score had an average of 19.7 points. Those subjects with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables showed higher dietscore (P<0.005); those who consumed more cereal with fat, dairy and animal foods had lower diet quality and increased consumption of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (P<0.001). Diet-score was inversely associated (P<0.001) with highest serum total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and lower HDL-cholesterol. Conclusions: in this apparently-healthy population low-diet-quality is a cardiovascular risk factor. This diet-score could be a helpful method of screening in public-health strategies.