1Nestle Research, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States of America, 3Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, 4Food Research Center, FoRC/Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 5Nestlé Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
Background and aims. Adequate nutrient intake is critical for healthy infant development. Our objective was to assess nutrient intakes and the top food sources of key nutrients among Brazilian infants.
Methods. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2019 assessed adequacy of dietary intake of Brazilian infants aged <1 year (n=218). Infants’ caregivers completed one 24-h dietary recall and a random subsample (25%) completed a second recall to estimate usual intakes. Nutrient intakes were compared with Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Adequate Intakes (AI), and top food sources of key nutrients were identified.
Results. Only 5% of infants 0-5.9 mo and 21% of 6-11.9 mo olds were above the AI for vitamin D. For vitamin E, 13% of 0-5,9 mo and 48% of 6-11,9 mo olds were above the AI. Intakes of folate, thiamin, zinc and niacin were generally adequate for 6-11,9 mo olds, but only about half of younger infants exceeded the AI for these nutrients (48-57% infants above the AI). Iron intakes were below the EAR for 44% infants 6-11,9 mo. With high breastfeeding rates among 0-5.9 mo olds, human milk provided 70-76% of nutrients, followed by infant formula (13-15%). As the diet diversified among 6-11.9 mo olds, other food sources became important. In addition to breastmilk and infant formula, fortified infant cereal was among top food sources for B-vitamins, vitamins D and E, and iron. Other grain foods were also important contributors to vitamin E, folate and iron.
Conclusions. Brazilian infants’ diets are inadequate in many micronutrients of nutritional importance for optimal development especially iron for 6-11.9 mo olds and vitamins D and E for all ages. Promotion of feeding infants’ nutrient dense foods should be emphasized.
Keywords: infant’s diet, nutrients, Brazil.