1Centro de Investigación en Nutrición y Salud- Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca , México, 2Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
Introduction and objective. Currently, the global average salt consumption is ≈10g/day. However, the amount needed for proper physiological function is estimated to be <1g of salt/day. Excessive salt consumption leads to multiple complex and interconnected physiological alterations such as raised blood pressure, blood vessel damage and hormonal and inflammatory pathways alterations. Contrary, a high potassium consumption reduces alterations related to hypertension. The objective of this paper was to do a systematic review and meta-analysis of published 24 urinary sodium and potassium data in the American region.
Methods. We performed a systematic review and meta‐analysis of the published literature. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were conducted in any sovereign state of America, including the Caribbean Region, and if they reported summary measurements of 24‐hour urinary sodium or potassium excretion. No language or study design restrictions were set. We restricted the search to studies from 1990. We extracted data on participants characteristics, sample size, mean age, sex, geographic location, study design, dates and methods of data collection, the 24‐hour urinary excretions of sodium, potassium, creatinine, and 24‐hour urine volume (mean, SD, SEM).
Results. The search yielded 8,911 results, and 7,910 were excluded at the screening stage; thus, 114 were studied in detail plus 4 found in the reference list. A total of 53 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in our meta‐analysis. The data spanned 1990 to 2018 and covered 13 of the 35 sovereign states of America. Our pooled data yielded a mean sodium excretion of 156.28 mmol/24 h (95% CI, 149.89-162.66), and a mean potassium excretion of 55.76 mmol/24 h (95% CI, 51.09-60.42). Mean creatinine excretion in adults, as reported in 19 studies, was 11.43 mmol/24 h (95% CI, 10.45-12.42). Mean urine volume, as reported in 21 studies, was 1699.27 ml (95% CI, 1536.20-1862.34).
Conclusion. Sodium excretion in America is higher than those recommended while potassium consumption is insufficient. Strategies to improve consumption are required.
Keywords: salt, sodium, potassium.