1International, Research Triangle Park, United States, 2Nestlé Research, Switzerland, 3Food Research Center -FoRC / University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Background and objective. To dietary guidance. The objective of these analyses was to assess nutrient adequacy in Brazilian children by SES.
Methods. The KNHS is a dietary intake survey of cross-sectional samples of caregivers of Brazilian children 4-13.9 years old (n=983). Nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour diet recall; a random 25% subsample completed a second recall to estimate usual intakes. SES was calculated using the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria and results collapsed into 3 categories (low, middle, and high) for comparison with nutrient adequacy reference values (Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and upper level (UL)).
Results. Among 4-8.9-year-old children, mean energy intake ranged from 1496 kcal (low SES) to 1537 kcal (middle SES), and among 9-13.9-year-olds from 1676 kcal (middle SES) to 1776 kcal (low SES). A considerable proportion of all SES groups, across both age groups had low intakes of vitamins D, E, and calcium (>74% below EAR); yet many children exceeded the UL for niacin (>46%) and more than 50% for sodium. Less than 49% of children had intakes above AI for Vitamin K, but this varied by age; further, lower SES was associated with higher prevalence of inadequacy. Across SES groups, more than 65% of older children were below the EAR for vitamin A and the prevalence of exceeding the AI was very low for fiber (<3%) and potassium (<10%).
Conclusions. Low intakes of vitamins D, E, K, calcium, fiber, and potassium for both age groups and vitamin A for older children are concerning. Excess intake of niacin and sodium are also troubling. SES group did not determine inadequate or excess nutrient intake, except for Vitamin K warranting broad public health nutrition initiatives.Keywords: children, nutrient adequacy, social economic status.