1University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Introduction: The Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is well established as a healthy dietary pattern (DP), modulating low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI). The MDP is directed at Mediterranean populations; thus, Brazilians’ use of this DP may signify different health benefits. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the degree of adherence to the MDP and investigate the association with LGSI. Methods: The sample consisted of 583 adults and older adults from a cross-sectional population-based study in São Paulo City, SP, Brazil (2015 ISA-Nutrition). Dietary databases from two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate the MedDietscore that, based on tertiles, determined a low, moderate, and high adherence to the MDP. An LGSI score was created by summing the normalized C-reactive protein (CRP) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) values and subtracting the normalized Adiponectin values. We adopted logistic regression models to investigate the association between the LGSI score and the MDP (Statistical significance level of 5%; Stata software v.14). Results: Participants with high adherence to the MPD had a greater intake of whole grains (6 servings/week), fish (4 servings/month), potatoes (2 servings/week), fruits (5 servings/week), olive oil (3 servings/ week) and vegetables (14 servings/week); and a lower intake of poultry (3 servings/week). High adherence to the MDP was directly associated with 8.3% lower inflammatory status (β=- 0.083; p=0.023). Computing the consumption of whole grains, potatoes, olive oil, and full-fat dairy was more relevant since their exclusion led to the loss of this association. Conclusions: Even in a Brazilian sample, high adherence to the MDP presented a specific profile inversely associated with LGSI.
Keywords: degrees of adherence, mediterranean dietary pattern, low-grade systemic inflammation.