1Consultora independiente, Santiago, Chile, 2Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Background: There is vast evidence and research related to the development and impact of the different Front of Package Labelling (FoPL) strategies. However, there is yet no systematization of the FoPL literature gaps. Objective: This work objective to describe the categorization of the FoPL peer-reviewed literature into a user-friendly and interactive evidence map. Methods: Six databases were searched until 30th September 2021 for descriptive, analytical, or qualitative studies reporting information on FoPL. The selected articles were characterized and mapped onto an Evidence and Gap Map, using the Eppi-Reviewer and Eppi-Mapper software. The studies were categorized by study design, population age, location, study outcome (consumer, producer, and policy formulation), and by FoPL type (Warning Labels, Traffic Lights, Healthy Star Rating, Nutri-Score and Healthy Choices). Results: Out of 1720 records, 379 articles were mapped. Most of the studies used a randomized control study design (38%) and were published in Europe (35%). The FoPL type with more publications was the Traffic light or colour-coding food labels (48%) and most of the studies (58%) were performed in adults. Consumer outcomes were the most frequent (705) and half of them (50%) were related to knowledge attitudes and understanding of nutrition, health, and package nutritional information. The second most frequent outcome was the use of nutritional information or changes on food purchases (40%), while reports of nutritional status or health outcomes was infrequent (3%). There were articles also addressing producer outcomes (9%) and policy formulation (29%). Conclusion: This map visualises the extent, nature and knowledge gaps of the literature related to FoPL. Further studies should focus where there are more evidence breaches. Funding: This research was funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDCR), Canada and supported by the Latin American and Caribbean Nutrition and Health Community of Practice (COLANSA) and the Nutrition and Food Technology Institute (INTA), University of Chile.
Keywods: the front of package label, graphic representation, evidence gaps map approach.